Patient Summaries - Volume 7 Issue 4

Patient Summary: This mini-review summarizes the evidence relating to the validation of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted cancer detection and Gleason grading of prostate cancer in biopsies, and highlights the remaining steps required prior to its widespread clinical implementation. We found that, although there is strong evidence to show that AI is able to perform Gleason grading on par with experienced uropathologists, more work is needed to ensure the accuracy of results from AI systems in diverse settings across different patient populations, digitization platforms, and pathology laboratories.
Patient Summary: This mini-review highlights the growing role of segmentation methods for medical images in urology to inform clinical practice. Segmentation methods show promise in improving the reliability of diagnosis and aiding in visualization, which may become a tool for patient education.
Patient Summary: We reviewed the literature for studies on automation in surgical robotics and on modeling of human behavior in human-machine interaction. The main application is to enhance the ability of surgical robotic systems to collaborate more effectively and intelligently with human surgeon operators.
Patient Summary: This mini-review reports recent advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence for spatial analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment in pathology slides. This information can help in understanding the spatial heterogeneity and organization of cells in patient tumors.
Patient Summary: This paper presents recommendations on how to reliably compare the usefulness of new artificial intelligence methods for analysis of medical image.
Patient Summary: Body composition analysis is the measurement of muscle and fat in your body based on analysis of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. We discuss the use of machine learning to automate body composition analysis. The information provided can be used to guide shared decision-making and to help in identifying the best therapy option.
Patient Summary: We summarise evidence on the ability of features extracted from CT (computed tomography) scans to predict patient outcomes from new treatments for kidney cancer. Although these features can predict treatment outcomes for patients, including survival, treatment response, and cancer progression, further research is necessary before this technology can be applied clinically.
Patient Summary: Machine-based measurement of a specific cell pattern (cribriform; sieve-like, with lots of spaces) in images of prostate specimens could improve risk stratification for patients with prostate cancer. In the future, this could help in expanding the criteria for active surveillance.
Patient Summary: In this review, new technologies are reported that can assist the surgeon by detecting insufficient removal of all tumorous tissue during surgery, instead of the standard postoperative histopathological assessment. Currently, it is not clear whether these technologies improve the patient outcome directly; however, the review shows potential future implementations.
Patient Summary: In this systematic review, we provide an overview of contemporary data from large clinical trials on the effect of current treatment strategies on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We summarize the assessment tools that have been used to measure HRQOL and show that there are robust data for positive HRQOL effects of numerous agents in different clinical stages of advanced prostate cancer.
Patient Summary: Better survival outcomes were reported in several studies where patients with advanced prostate cancer received the abiraterone to enzalutamide sequence compared with the enzalutamide to abiraterone sequence. No study estimated the cost of sequencing either treatment approach.
Patient Summary: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography with a 68Ga-labeled ligand for prostate-specific membrane antigen is capable of detecting prostate cancer in patients with a high suspicion of cancer and a previous negative biopsy.
Patient Summary: Surgeons in the learning curve can perform Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy safely, with similar early oncological results and functional outcomes.
Patient Summary: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NADT) is administered prior to robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), contrary to clinical guidelines. NADT may not have worse sexual function outcomes up to 2 yr after RALP.
Patient Summary: We reported outcomes from third-line life-prolonging drugs in metastatic prostate cancer patients and developed a prognostic model that could be used to guide treatment decisions.
Patient Summary: The presented clinical-genomic data demonstrate that elderly patients with low-risk prostate cancer might harbor more aggressive disease than their younger counterparts. This suggests that standard well-accepted paradigm of elderly prostate cancer patients not being aggressively treated, based solely on their chronological age, might need to be reconsidered.
Patient Summary: Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiorecurrent M0 castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is feasible, although continence outcomes are suboptimal and the risk of complications is significant. Survival is promising: some men can be cured and others experience a period without evidence of PC or CRPC. More research is needed to confirm our findings and demonstrate survival benefits.
Patient Summary: Microscopic hematuria might have predictive value for conservative treatment of a single uncomplicated ureteral calculus. Using the presence or absence of blood in urine and other predictive factors, clinicians may lead patients with a single uncomplicated ureteral calculus to successful conservative therapy.
Patient Summary: Metastatic rate varies in T1 stage renal cell carcinoma patients according to tumor size, histology, and tumor grade.
Patient Summary: Our research suggests that by using a noninvasive imaging test, known as technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography, to diagnose small renal masses, urologists may avoid unnecessary surgery for benign tumors and minimize the risk of leaving a malignant tumor untreated. Moreover, the use of this strategy to diagnose small renal masses is cost effective for the health care system.
Patient Summary: We studied patients with testicular cancer that recurred at least 2 yr after initial treatment with chemotherapy. We found that patients who are able to have surgery to remove cancer and who have more intensive chemotherapy may be more likely to live longer.
Patient Summary: The management of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes is crucial for the survival of penile cancer patients. Disease rarity mandates referral to clinical practice guidelines for appropriate treatment selection.
Patient Summary: We compared safety and clarity of water and saline irrigation, which aid surgeon visualization, in ureteroscopy, which can treat kidney stones. We found that water irrigant does not reduce blood sodium levels significantly compared with saline in ureteroscopy and provides better visualization.
Patient Summary: In this research, we have highlighted the diversity in outcomes reporting in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgical trials and have categorized the outcomes. We support the development of a core outcome set for SUI, which will promote future clinical researchers to measure the same outcome in the same way in all trials. This will, in turn, help researchers summarize the evidence more effectively and aid decision making for patients and doctors.
Patient Summary: In patients who do not qualify for an orthotopic bladder substitute, a heterotopic continent cutaneous cross-folded ileal reservoir offers a viable alternative with good postoperative functional results and high patient satisfaction.
Patient Summary: In this review, we looked at the outcomes of surgery for treatment-refractory bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. We found overall symptom improvement in 77.2% of patients with a complication rate of 26.5%. However, there remains a need for further studies of higher quality to identify patients who will have symptom improvement and the best surgical option.
Patient Summary: In this report we looked at data for adolescent and young adult men in a US national database on total testosterone (TT) levels. There has been a decline in mean TT levels over the past two decades and TT is lower with progressively higher body mass index. We conclude that TT levels have been declining in young adult men in recent decades.
Patient Summary: The #ILookLikeAUrologist hashtag has been widely used on Twitter by a large global audience to promote diversity and inclusion in urology.