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Latest Evidence on the Impact of Smoking, Sports, and Sexual Activity as Modifiable Lifestyle Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Incidence, Recurrence, and Progression: A Systematic Review of the Literature by the European Association of Urology Section of Oncological Urology (ESOU)

Published:March 22, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2018.02.007

      Abstract

      Context

      Smoking, sexual activity, and physical activity (PA) are discussed as modifiable lifestyle factors associated with prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression.

      Objective

      To evaluate the available evidence concerning the association of smoking, sexual activity, and sports and exercise on PCa risk, treatment outcome, progression, and cancer-specific mortality.

      Evidence acquisition

      A systematic review of studies published between 2007 and 2017 using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement criteria was conducted.

      Evidence synthesis

      While data concerning the impact of smoking on PCa development remain conflicting, there is robust evidence that smoking is associated with aggressive tumor features and worse cancer-related outcome, which seems to be maintained for 10 yr after smoking cessation. Less convincing and limited evidence exists for the association of sexual activity with PCa risk. The findings related to PA and PCa support the inference that exercise might be a useful factor in the prevention of PCa and tumor progression, while it is not finally proved under which specific conditions PA might be protective against disease development.

      Conclusions

      Smoking is associated with aggressive tumor features and worse cancer-related prognosis; as this negative impact seems to be maintained for 10 yr after smoking cessation, urologists should advise men to quit smoking latest at PCa diagnosis to improve their prognosis. As several studies indicate a positive impact of exercise on tumor development, progression, and treatment outcome, it is certainly reasonable to advocate an active lifestyle. Least convincing evidence is available for the interaction of sexual activity and PCa, and well-conducted and longitudinal studies are clearly necessary to evaluate whether the suggested associations between PCa risk and sexual behavior are real or spurious.

      Patient summary

      In this systematic review, we looked at the impact of smoking, sexual activity, and sports and exercise on prostate cancer risk and outcome after treatment. While the evidence for sexual activity is not overall clear, we found that smoking might lead to more aggressive cancers and result in worse treatment outcome. Physical activity might prevent prostate cancer and improve cancer-related outcomes as well. Hence, it is certainly reasonable to advocate an active lifestyle and advise men to quit smoking.

      Keywords

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